College Homework

Review the Certification Commission for Health Information Technology (CCHIT) website


  • What criteria does CCHIT use to compare Electronic Health Records (EHR)?

The Certification Commission for Healthcare Information Technology (CCHIT) is actually a NGO 501(c)3 which has the main duty of speeding up the adoption of vigorous, interoperable healthcare information technology through creating a trustworthy and competent certification process. The body uses the following criteria so as to compare Electronic Health Records (EHR): functionality, interoperability and security.  The automation of workflow in the facility and capability to craft and manage all electronic records encompasses the functionality part while the capability to send and receive electronic data linking an HER with the outside sources of data records such as pharmacies and labs make up the interoperability aspect. The capability to maintain all patients’ health records private and safe institutes the security part (Heo et al 2012).


  • What criterion do you think is most important for comparing EHR’s? Why? Discuss Homework Help Online

The criterion which is most important for comparing EHR’S is interoperability. By using laboratory results, the organization is able to compare information concerning the test accuracy and bring out clear results to compare the EHR’S. This criterion can also make use of other avenues such as electronic prescribing and exchange of summary documents. All these aspects provide solid basis and tangible data to compare several EHR’S.


  • What are the benefits and drawbacks of using certified EHR’s?

The benefits of using certified EHR’S to the patients is that they are able to access or rather track their respective health records in a Personalized health Record (PHR) and also throughout the country at all the certified healthcare facilities.  Patients having the capacity to access their own health information are quite useful as they will be able to keep track of their health at all times and wherever they are. Moreover, certification guarantees that the EHR one buy meets up the countrywide standards for information/records exchange, most commonly identified as “interoperability”. A major drawback of using certified EHR’S is that only data can be accessed by another provide only if their data structures is in line with the national standards and more the data can’t be shared to the personal health record.










Heo, E. Y., Hwang, H., Kim, E. H., Cho, E. Y., Lee, K. H., `Kim, T. H., et al. (2012). Comparing the Certification Criteria for CCHIT-Certified Ambulatory EHR with the SNUBH’s EHR Functionalities. Healthcare Informatics Research18(1), 57–64.



  1. 1.      How many criminal cases are filed annually?

District courts in United States act as trial courts to all key violations regarding federal criminal law. It will be realized that each year the attorneys in U.S file about 70,000 criminal cases mostly for fraud, embezzlement and drug violations (Neubauer, 2008).

2. Name three defenses to criminal charges.

  1. Defense of Duress

This is where the accused claims that the offense was committed under compulsion by another party where the accused might have been threatened to be murdered or harmed if he or she failed to commit the crime.

  1. Defense of Automatism

The accused claim that they did not have control over their actions hence cannot be held liable. The accused may possibly have been provoked, sleepwalking, incapacitated, deluded or mentally disabled.

  1. Self defense

This type of defense is largely applied in charges of homicide or assault. The accused alleges to have killed or assaulted the victim for the reason that the victim might have attacked the defendant (Scheb, 2003).



3. What are inchoate crimes?

Inchoate crimes also known as incomplete crimes and generally refer to acts related the propensity to indirectly participate or commit a criminal offense.  Inchoate crimes comprise attempt, conspiracy and solicitation to commit the crime.



   4. What is a crime?

A crime takes place when one breaks the law through neglect, omission or an overt act against the public that may lead to punishment. Anyone who violates the law or either breaches a rule is construed to have actually committed criminal offense. Violent and property crimes are the two main categories that revolve around crime.


5. Who are the parties to a criminal case?

The parties involved in a criminal case extend to include the victims, jury, judge, defense and the prosecution. The judge is actually the neutral third party and makes sure that the parties act within the rules without any violations ones rights. The jury settles on the questions of facts. The defenses do not precisely have to perform anything since all burdens are directed towards the prosecution. The prosecution refers to the person who puts the accused on trial. Victims do not actually tell the prosecution or judge what to do or even control the trial since they have a restricted amount of say (Hall, 1996).

6. How does the Constitution constrain legislature when making criminal statutes?

The constitution constrains the legislature as it guarantees right of appeal, undertakes trial through using jury of peers, it is against double jeopardy and unusual and cruel punishment and guarantees right towards legal counsel. It also guarantees right against seizure, unreasonable search as well as self incrimination.

7. What is the Model Penal Code?

The Model Penal Code is essentially a type of statutory text that was established in 1962 through the American Law Institute. Its purpose was geared at assisting and stimulating the legislatures to standardize and update the U.S penal law. Model Penal Code was actually a form of combination that the American Law Institute considered to be the excellent rules revolving around the United States penal system. It will be documented that ever since its formulation Model Penal Code has helped in standardizing the states’ codified penal laws.

8. What is the burden of proof in a criminal law case?

a. Convincing and clear Evidence

This refers to a firm conviction or belief that explains that an event has taken place. The plaintiff ought to prove through clear as well as convincing evidence that his/her version regarding the facts is more probable to be exact than the version of the defendant’s fact. Convincing and clear evidence is an elevated encumber of proof though it is not regarded as the highest burden towards proof.

b. Beyond a Reasonable Doubt

It will be realized that the utmost burden of proof that applies to all courts is the proof beyond a reasonable doubt. The jury ought to begin by assuming that the accusations directed to the defendant are not true. The juror is supposed to be in favor of the government during the trial’s end only if the prosecution wipes out the reasonable doubts behind the innocence of the defendant from the mind of the juror. The presupposition of innocence is very crucial in the criminal process because it keeps the juries and judges focused on the ultimate prevailing issue within the criminal case.
9. What are the two major justifications for criminal punishment?

  1. 1.      Retribution

Retribution is believed to be one of the ancient justifications revolving around criminal punishment. In essence, retribution within our society stems from the Old Testament decree and extends to state that offenders must be penalized in an equal manner that truly reflects their offense (Pollock, 2007).

  1. 2.      Deterrence

Another major justification towards criminal punishment is deterrence. It is thought to be further logical than retribution as it relies on the rational analysis of the fundamental human conduct. Deterrence is divided into two major types: specific and general. Under the general perspective people usually see criminals being penalized for their crimes hence reducing similar behaviors. On the other hand specific deterrence entails use of punishment against criminals for previous crimes so as to deject them from possible criminal conduct.


10. What does the 8th Amendment of the United States constitution prohibits?

This amendment is part of the Bill of Rights within the United States that forbids the federal government from inflicting excessive fines, unusual and cruel punishments such as torture and also excessive bail (, 2005).














Greenberg, K. J., & Dratel, J. L. (2005).The torture papers: the road to Abu Ghraib. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Hall, D. (1996). Criminal law and procedure (2nd ed.). Albany: Delmar Publishers.

Neubauer, D. W. (2008). America’s courts and the criminal justice system (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Pollock, J. M. (2007). Ethical dilemmas and decisions in criminal justice (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.

Scheb, J. M. (2003). Criminal law (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.

Comedy of Manners


Comedy of Manners

The comedy of manners is a technique of comedy that reflects the ideals, manners and the ideals of upper class society in a way that is essentially true to its philosophy and traditions. The characters have to strive to maintain the mask of social artifice whilst revealing to the audience what lies behind such manners.

The Importance of Being Earnest is such an example of comedy of manners. This is because it makes fun of the behavior of Victorian aristocracy which attaches great value to frivolity, artificiality, superficiality, hypocrisy, and money mindedness. We are shown that the Victorian upper class society used to judge things by appearance and the play makes us express amusement at those values through a satirical, witty and funny language. Through character development in the play, there are values that give us an insight into the upper class of the Victorian period.

In what ways have the Greeks influenced the history of playwriting?

Throughout history, Greeks have influenced our lives in more ways than we can imagine. It was during the golden age and the Renaissance period that the Greeks produced many great and important playwrights that could enhance the arts of drama and writing forever. It was during this period that the Greeks did establish the formula that is used by most playwrights today. Playwrights began with the Greeks and from there many plays have become some of the greatest works of literature there have been.

The ancient Greeks held drama competitions with winners for playwriting. In such ways, the Greeks really did establish the formula that is used by most playwrights today. An example is tragedies, satire and comedy.

Most of the modern playwrights largely borrowed from the Greeks. When one reads a Greek play, it feels largely the same as a modern play (within reason). All the classic elements are there and the experience does not differ in any really significant way. In fact, Greek playwrights were the forebears of most modern playwrights.